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Essay on Unemployment in India

Essay Contents:

  1. Essay on Global Employment and Unemployment Situation
  2. Essay on Indian Employment and Unemployment Scenario
  3. Essay on the Recommendations of Planning Commission for Accelerating Employment in the Agricultural Sector
  4. Essay on the Avenues of Employment/Self-Employment in Agriculture and Allied Sector
  5. Essay on the Conclusion to Unemployment in India

Essay # 1. Global Employment and Unemployment Situation:

The global employment and unemployment situation according to the World Employment Report 1998-99, was as follows:

i. Out of an estimated 6 billion population in the year 1997 around 3 billion was in the labour force.

ii. 160 million persons have been estimated to be fully unemployed.

iii. 25 to 30% of the employed labour force is under employed.

iv. A large number of young people in the age group of 15 and 24 around 60 million in 1997are continuously in search of work, i.e., unemployed.

A few important conclusions which emerge from the above report are:

i. Limited demand for unskilled and less skilled labour.

ii. Increase in demand for skilled labour on account of technological development and up-gradation and changes in the organization of work.

iii. Problems in maintaining the continued employability of labour force.

iv. Demand for multi-skilling.

Some of the important strategies recommended in the World Employment Report are:

i. Timely investment in skill development and training at enhanced level.

ii. Enhancement of education and skill level of workers.

iii. Responsive training system.

iv. Need for effective partnership of all stake holders.

Essay # 2. Indian Employment and Unemployment Scenario:

Planning in India focused at realizing a high rate of growth of output in the long term. A basic assumption was that shortage of capital goods in relation to employable persons constituted a fundamental constraint on growth in the economy. Therefore, the planning process made no attempt to define an independent employment strategy; the focus on economic growth was viewed as essential for improving the employment situation.

Initially, labour force expansion was not seen as a problem to be contented with. Thus, in the Five Year Plans, the generation of employment was viewed as part of the process of development and not as a goal in conflict with, or to be pursued independently of economic development.

In India, due to the agrarian sector with seasonal operations, time disposition and availability for work have been the criteria for measuring employment. The accepted method of measuring employment is the usual status. Reliable estimates of employment/unemployment are generated through National Sample Surveys conducted once in 5 years by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). The concept recognizes time utilization only. Quality of work or income does not get reflected in the approach.

As per the results of the National Sample Survey conducted in 1999-2000, total work force as on 1.1.2000, as per usual status approach (considering both principal and subsidiary activities) was of the order of 406 million. About 7% of the total work force is employed in the formal or organized sector (all public sector establishments and all non-agricultural establishments in private sector with 10 or more workers) while remaining 93% work in the informal or unorganized sector.

The size of the organized sector employment is estimated through the Employment Market Information Programme of DGE&T, Ministry of Labour. The capacity of the organized sector to absorb additional accretion to the labour force, taking into account the current accent on modernization and automation, is limited.

In other words, an overwhelming proportion of the increase in the labour force will have to be adjusted in the unorganized sector. About 369 million workers are placed today in unorganized/informal sector in India; agriculture workers account for the majority of this work force. Growth rate of employment is less than the growth rate of the labour force indicating an increase in the unemployment rate. Self-employment and casual labour continued to play a pivotal role in rehabilitation of the unemployed.

Essay # 3. Recommendations of Planning Commission for Accelerating Employment in the Agricultural Sector:

Considering the problems of employment and unemployment situation in the country, Planning Commission set up a task force under the chairmanship of Dr. MS Ahluwalia to go into the details of the employment generation taking place in the economy and suggest measures for creation of 100 million jobs (10 million per year) in a period of 10 years.

The task force has recommended intervention in five major areas as under:

i. Accelerating the rate of growth of GDP, with a particular emphasis on sectors likely to ensure the spread of income to the lower income segments of the labour force.

ii. Pursuing appropriate sectoral policies in individual sector, which are particularly important for employment generation.

iii. Implementing focused special programmes for creating additional employment of enhancing income generation from existing activities aimed at helping vulnerable groups that may not be sufficiently benefited by the more general growth promoting policies.

iv. Pursuing suitable policies for education and skill development, which would upgrade the quality of the labour force and make it capable of supporting a growth process which generates high quality jobs?

v. Ensuring that the policy and legal environment governing the labour market encourages labour absorption, especially in the organized sector.

The special group has also suggested restructuring in the following sectors in favour of labour intensive activity for generating additional gainful job opportunities for the Tenth Plan.

a. Agriculture and allied sectors.

b. Greening the country through Agro Forestry.

c. Energy plantation for biomass power generation.

d. Rural sectors and small and medium enterprises (SMEs).

e. Education and literacy.

f. Employment through ICT development.

g. Health, family and child welfare.

But along with the employment generation, self-employment or entrepreneurship will be crucial for bringing about a holistic development in a country like India.

Essay # 4. Avenues of Employment/Self-Employment in Agriculture and Allied Sector:

There are many avenues of employment/self-employment in agriculture and allied sectors, ranging from researcher to consultant, breeder, extension worker, and also in the sales and marketing of agro products like pesticides, fertilizers, seeds, etc. Besides entrepreneurial opportunities are also plenty.

Below we look at some of the emerging employment/self-employment opportunities in agriculture and allied field.

Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centres:

Every year about 11900 agriculture graduates pass out of agricultural universities of which only about 2000 get employed in public and private sectors. The remaining 9900 agriculture graduates add to the pool of under employed/unemployed agriculture graduates.

The scheme of agriclinic and agribusiness centres was launched on 9th April, 2002 as a follow-up of Finance Minister’s budget speech for 2001. The objective of the scheme is to provide fee-based extension and other services to the farming community and also to create self-employment opportunities for agriculture graduates.

The agriculture graduates are provided training in agribusiness development for two months in over 67 institutions in public/private sector located throughout the country and coordinated by MANAGES. These institutions also provide handholding support to the trained graduates for a period of one year.

The entire cost of training and handholding is being borne by the Government of India. Trained graduates are expected to set up agriclinic and agribusiness centres with the help of bank finance. The scheme is being implemented with the help of Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC), National Institute of Agriculture Extension Management (MANAGE) and National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD).

Food Technologies:

In today’s busy world, people do not have enough time to stay in the kitchen. With changing lifestyle, food habits and jobs profile the ready to cook, ready to serve and fully processed packaged food and beverages are becoming popular.

It is estimated that food processing industries is growing and generating new jobs to extent of 2.5 lakhs every year. Agro processing sector is further expected to grow faster and generate more employment in the near future. It is estimated that Indian food increases more than 5,00,000 crores by the end of the year 2005. The market of the value added specialized processed packaged food product will grow to Rs.2,30,000 at the end of year 2005.


Biotechnology is a science that enables us to find the beneficial traits, in terms of added nutrition, increased flavour, or greater ability to fight pests or diseases, and incorporate them into various organisms.

Biotechnology is able to isolate a particular gene (or trait) in one organism, remove it, and then transfer it to another organism, where this same gene replicates itself, creating a stronger and more resilient strain of the same substance.

Various roles in biotechnology are:

i. Molecular Biologist ― Functions in the area of genetic engineering.

ii. Plant Tissue Culture Specialist ― Functions in the area of in vitro regeneration and propagation of plantlets.

iii. Plant Geneticist ― Works to improve plants by developing new cultivars (horticultural varieties).

Extension Education:

Extension education is the process of teaching rural people how to live better by learning ways to improve their farm, home and community institutions (J. Paul Leagans). But the task of developing an individual is not so easy. For this an extension educator has to be a teacher, guide, friend and philosopher to the villagers/rural poor.

Thus if one aspires to be an extension educator he must be possessing an attitude and aptitude essentially demanded by the profession (i.e. interest and ability to work for the villagers) in addition to having a sound knowledge and understanding of the subject.


Floriculture denotes cultivation of flowers, developing new varieties of commercial value, sale of flowers as raw commodities, processing, distribution, etc. for the local and international market. Floriculture is emerging as a blooming business not only in India but in other countries as well. The annual domestic demand for the flowers is growing at a rate of over 25% and around Rs.90,000 crore internationally.

Floriculture industry in India comprises flower trade, nursery plants and potted plants, seed and bulb production, micro-propagation and extraction of essential oils. India’s share in international market of flowers is negligible.

Enormous genetic, diversity, varied agro-climatic conditions, versatile human resources offer India a unique scope for diversification into new avenues which were hitherto unexplored or under-explored. India seems to have a blooming future of floriculture as there is a shift in the trend towards tropical flowers and this can be gainfully exploited by India.

Opportunities include consultants, farm/estate managers, plantation experts, and plantation supervisors, project coordinator. Research and teaching are some other avenues. Recently, marketing of floriculture products for different ventures has also emerged as a potential segment of this field. One can also work as entrepreneur and offer employment to others.


Dairying is always considered as a viable occupation by the farm women and farmers as it generates regular income round the year. However, it can emerge as a profitable venture if undertaken as a business, based on proven scientific knowledge, latest package of technology, training and proper planning.

i. Milk Production Units:

These units rear the milch animals and produce milk and sell it to the cooperatives, vendors and other consumers at remunerative prices, e.g., dairy farms.

ii. Milk Procuring and Preserving Units:

These units do not manufacture any new product. They merely procure and process the milk in order to increase its shelf-life, e.g., small-scale milk plants, chilling centres and raw milk pouch filling, etc.

iii. Milk and Milk Products Manufacturing Units:

These units produce entirely new products based on milk as the main raw material.

iv. Packaging Units:

These units can be undertaken in collaboration with any milk preserving and milk products manufacturing units. These units design attractive and safe packages for different milk products.


Horticulture is the main stream of agriculture. The term “Horticulture” is derived from the Latin hortus (garden) and culture (cultivation), which means garden cultivation. Horticulture is the branch of agricultural plant sciences that deals with the production of fruits, vegetables, nuts and ornamentals. It is a major source of food and employment. Horticulture provides a wide variety of jobs for many categories of people, directly or indirectly.

Job Opportunities:

i. Scientist.

ii. Academician.

iii. Training organizer.

iv. District horticulture officer/district agriculture officer.

v. Technical assistant/technical officer in agriculture universities, ICAR, DRDO, IARI and CSIR.

vi. Horticulture inspector/fruit and vegetable inspector/marketing inspector.

vii. Training assistant in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK).

viii. Farm supervisor.

ix. Horticulturist/horticulture officer or supervisor (landscape) in industries, farm houses, hotels, golf courses and construction companies, etc.

x. Agriculture development officer.

xi. Village level worker.

xii. Agriculture inspector.

xiii. Marketing job also in pesticides and insecticides companies.

Entrepreneurship Areas in Horticulture:

i. Horticulture consultant.

ii. Agriculture clinic.

iii. Raising commercial nursery.

iv. Seed producer.

v. Fruit/vegetable/flower grower.

vi. Floral decorator/florist.

vii. Horticulture services contractor.

viii. Mushroom grower.

Ix. Seed dealer/merchant.

x. Proprietor-cold storage.

xi. Processing work of horticulture production.

Plant Breeder:

Plant breeders can make a career in education and research in 31 agriculture universities in the country, 40 ICAR institutes; seed production agencies of the government (National Seed Corporation, State Seed Corporations, SFCI, etc.). International crop research institutes under CGLAR system also offers very high quality jobs to plant breeders.


Sericulture refers to the conscious mass-scale rearing of silk producing organisms to obtain silk. Mulberry sericulture involves the cultivation of mulberry to produce leaf rearing of silkworm to convert leaf to the cocoon, reeling of the cocoon to obtain silk yarn and weaving to convert the yarn to fabric. Job opportunities for sericulture graduates include reapers, weavers, exporters, traders, etc.


Agronomy provides a wide variety of jobs for many categories of people, directly or indirectly. A large number of jobs require knowledge and training in Agronomy. The level of training could be vocational or at the college level. The work may be based on production aspects, demonstration trials in the rural areas and procurement of produce; marketing of inputs, viz. pesticides, insecticides, fertilizers and seeds of various crops in the urban as well as in rural outlets.

Other important job opportunities include scientist, educationist, training organizer, and marketing job in pesticides and insecticides companies, agronomist consultant, and seed producer.

Agricultural Engineering:

There is tremendous scope for qualified engineers having professional degrees in agricultural engineering. Agricultural engineers work in production, sales, management, research and development, or applied science in agriculture. A large number of agricultural engineers work in academia or for research and development.

The job opportunities in private sectors include tractor industries for sales, R&D and management; irrigation equipment companies for sales, R&D and maintenance; dairy and food industries for quality control, R&D, and maintenance of processing machineries; computer applications for software development; instrumentation for automation and control; consultants to many organizations; agriclinic, agribusiness; and NGOs.

The job opportunities in government sectors include field executives and engineers, training assistants and organizers in areas of mechanization of agriculture, irrigation, drainage, soil and water conservation engineering, command area development, watershed management, rural development; and also in SAUs, ICAR, krishi vigyan kendras (KVKs), universities, colleges and other organizations for teaching, research and development, extensions and other scientific and technical jobs.

Lac Cultivation:

Trained youth may select it as career to start their own training centre at village level. They can also share their trained manpower with NGO and agencies, which is working for rural areas. By adopting it as career, mass migration of youth from villages can be stopped.

Agricultural Meteorology:

Agricultural meteorologists can work for research and developmental activities in private and government agencies such as Central and State Agricultural Universities, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Space Application Centre (SAC), National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). In private sector, agricultural meteorologists work as consultants to many organizations including NGOs involved in water shed management, command area and rural development programmes.


There are a variety of jobs one can specialize in a tea industry. All together it is known as tea management. Tea tasting is one of the highly specialized areas of work. Other areas are that of researchers, plantation managers, tea brokers, consultants, etc. Work in the tea industry includes plantation management, processing, packing, auctioning, branding, marketing and research. Tea brokers who have a background in planting, tasting and knowledge of market trends auction the tea and the marketing personnel market the final product.

This is not an exhaustive list. There could be many more avenues of employment/self-employment in agriculture and allied sectors.

Some other entrepreneurial areas in agriculture are as follows:

1. Agribusiness centres.

2. Agro-eco tourism.

3. Animal feed unit.

4. Bio-fertilizer production and marketing.

5. Clearing and forwarding agency.

6. Contract farming.

7. Crop protection centre.

8. Cultivation of medicinal plants.

9. Cyber extension.

10. Dairy.

11. Direct marketing/retail marketing.

12. Establishment of fodder farm.

13. Farm machinery unit.

14. Feed mixing plant.

15. Fisheries development.

16. Floriculture marketing.

17. Food processing.

18. Herbal based mineral water.

19. Herbal processing unit.

20. Honey agribusiness.

21. Insurance.

22. Landscaping and nursery.

23. Micro-irrigation systems.

24. Mushroom cultivation.

25. Organic production/food chain.

26. Pesticides production and marketing.

27. Pickle, papad units.

28. Plant clinics.

29. Post-harvest management.

30. Poultry.

31. Research and development.

32. Seed processing and agribusiness.

33. Soil testing laboratory.

34. Thermo foam tray production.

35. Tissue culture unit.

36. Vegetable production and marketing.

37. Vermicomposting.

Essay # 5. Conclusion to Unemployment in India:

A part of the unemployment problem emanates from the mismatch between the skill requirements of employment opportunities and the skill base of the job-seekers. Rapid expansion of education, particularly of higher education, has also contributed to the mismatch in the labour market.

While shortages of middle level technical and supervisory skills are often experienced, graduates and post­graduates in arts, commerce and science constitute a large proportion of job-seekers. The mismatch is likely to become more acute in the process of rapid structural changes in the economy.

It is, therefore, necessary to re-orient the educational and training systems towards improving its capability to supply the requisite skills in the medium and long-term, and introduce greater flexibility in the training system so as to enable it to quickly respond to labour market changes in the short run.

The system should also be in a position to impart suitable training to the large mass of workers engaged as self-employed and wage earners in the unorganized sector for up-gradation of their skills, as an effective means for raising their productivity potential and income levels.