Compilation of Essays on ‘Education System in India’ for class 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays and speech on ‘Education System in India’ especially written for school and college students. Also learn about 1. Essay On Education System In India In 200 Words 2. Essay On Education System In India For Upsc 3. 250 Words Essay On Education System In India 4. Essay On Education System In Our Country 5. Problems In Indian Education System Speech 7.Essay on Today’s Education System.

Essay Contents:

  1. Essay on Education System in India
  2. Essay on Elementary Education
  3. Essay on Secondary Education for UPSC
  4. Essay on Higher Education for UPSC
  5. Essay on Technical Education
  6. Essay on Today’s Education System

1. Essay on Education System in India: [250 + words]

A uniform structure of school education, the 10+2 system has been adopted by all the States and Union Territories of India. However, within the States and the UTs, there remains variations in the number of classes constituting the Primary, Upper Primary, High and Higher Secondary school stages, age for admission to class I, medium of instruction, public examinations, teaching of Hindi and English, number of working days in a year, academic session, vacation periods, fee structure, compulsory education, etc.

Stages of School Education in India:

A. The Primary Stage consists of Classes I-V, i.e., of five years duration, in 20 States/UTs namely Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal and Yanam regions of Pondicherry. The primary stage consists of class’s I-IV in Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe region of Pondicherry.

B. The Middle Stage of education comprises Classes VI- VIII in as many as 18 States. UTs viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal region of Pondicherry; Classes V-VII in Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe region of Pondicherry and Classes VI-VII in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Yanam region of Pondicherry. In Nagaland Classes V – VIII constitute the upper primary stage.

C. The Secondary Stage consists of Classes IX-X in 19 States/UTs. viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan , Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal region of Pondicherry. The High School stage comprises classes VIII to X in 13 States/UTs viz., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe & Yanam regions of Pondicherry. However, the Higher Secondary/Senior Secondary stage of school comprising classes XI-XII (10+2 pattern) is available in all the States/UTs though in some States/UTs these classes are attached to Universities/Colleges.


2. Essay on Elementary Education:

The Government of India lays emphasis to primary education up to the age of fourteen years. It is also called as primary education. The Government of India has also banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions.

However, both free education and the ban on child labour arc difficult job due to pre­vailing economic disparity and social conditions. More than two third of all recognized schools at the elementary stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the Country.

The Right of Children to Free & Compulsory Education:

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 as well as Article 21 A, inserted in the Constitution of India through the Constitution (Eighty-Sixth Amendment) Act, 2002, became operational on 1st April, 2010. This milestone achieve­ment was market by the Prime Minister’s address to the Nation.

The Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh has rightly said- Right to Education Act will realize the dreams of many children across the nation… “This demonstrates our national commitment to the education of our children and to the future of India. We are a nation of young people. Education will determine the well-being of our nation. Education is the key to progress. It empowers the individuals. If we nurture our children through right to education then India’s future is secured”. The RTE Act entitles every child with the right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

(i) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is Government of India’s flagship programme for achieve­ment of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time bound manner, as mandated by 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory Education to the Children of 6-14 years age group, a Fundamental Right. SSA is being implemented in partnership with State Governments to cover the entire country and address the needs of 192 million children in 1.1 million habitations.

The programme seeks to open new schools in those habitations which do not have school­ing facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of addi­tional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants.

Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength are provided with additional teachers, while the capacity of existing teachers is being strengthened by extensive train­ing, grants for developing teaching-learning materials and strengthening of the academic support structure at a cluster, block and district level.

SSA seeks to provide quality elementary education including life skills. SSA has a special focus on girl’s education and children with special needs. SSA also seeks to provide computer education to bridge the digital divide. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an effort to universalise elementary education by community-ownership of the school system.

It is a response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. The SSA programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children, through provision of community-owned quality education in a mission mode.

Concept of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:

(i) A programme with a clear time frame for universal elementary education.

(ii) A response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country.

(iii) An opportunity for promoting social justice through basic education.

(iv) An effort at effectively involving the Panchayati Raj Institutions, School Manage­ment Committees, Village and Urban Slum Level Education Committees, Parents’ Teachers’ Associations, Mother Teacher Associations, Tribal Autonomous Coun­cils and other grass root level structures in the management of elementary schools.

(v) An expression of political will for universal elementary education across the coun­try.

(vi) A partnership between the Central, State and the local government.

(vii) An opportunity for States to develop their own vision of elementary education.

Aims of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010. There is also another goal to bridge social, regional and gender gaps, with the active participation of the community in the manage­ment of schools. Useful and relevant education signifies a quest for an education system that is not alienating and that draws on community solidarity.

Its aim is to allow children to learn about and master their natural environment in a manner that allows the fullest harnessing of their human potential both spiritually and materially. This quest must also be a process of value based learning that allows children an opportunity to work for each other’s well-being rather than to permit mere selfish pursuits.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan realizes the importance of Early Childhood Care and Education and looks at the 0-14 age as a continuum. All efforts to support pre-school learning in ICDS centres or special pre-school centres in non-ICDS areas will be made to supple­ment the efforts being made by the Department of Women and Child Development.

Objectives of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:

Objectives of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan are as fol­lows:

(i) All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School, ‘Back-to- School’ camp by 2003;

(ii) All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007;

(iii) All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010;

(iv) Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on educa­tion for life;

(v) Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010;

(vi) Universal retention by 2010.

Revision of SSA norms:

In September, 2009 the Government of India set a committee under the Chairmanship of Shri Anil Bordia, a former Union Education secretary to suggest follow up action on SSA viz., the RTE Act.

On the basis of the recommendation of the Committee, SSA’s Frame­work of Implementation is under revision and the following norms have been modified to align them with the requirement of RTE Act, 2009:

(i) New Schools:

SSA would support opening of new primary and upper primary schools as per neighbourhood norms prescribed by the State Governments in their RTE Rules; all alternate schooling facilities provided through centres under the Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) to be upgraded to regular formal schools within a period of two years.

(ii) Teachers:

Issues of teacher availability and teacher training need to be addressed. Sanction of teachers and part-time instructors for Art Education, Health and Physi­cal Education and Work Education as per norms prescribed in the Schedule to the RTE Act.

(iii) Additional Classrooms:

Provision of additional classrooms so that every teacher has a classroom to herself/himself; also provision of a room for head teacher- cum-office.

(iv) Special Training for Out-of-School Children:

Provision of Special Training for out- of-school and drop out children to facilitate age – appropriate admission man­dated under section 4 of the RTE Act. The centre functioning under SSA’s Alter­nate and Innovative Education (AIE) programme are reconceptualised to provide Special Training in residential or non-residential mode in a flexible duration of three months to two years depending on the needs of the child.

(v) Eight Year EE Cycle:

In order to facilitate all State Governments to move towards an eight year elementary education cycle comprising five years of primary + three years of upper primary schooling, the SSA norms have been revised to provide teaching learning equipment (TLE) to enable States to merge class 5 and class 8 with the primary and upper primary stage respectively, and thus move towards an eight year elementary education cycle.

(vi) Uniforms:

The RTE Act mandates free and compulsory education for all children in Government schools. Uniforms constitute an expense which poor families are often not able to afford, and thus becomes a barrier for many children to pursue and complete elementary education. SSA will provide two sets of uniform to all girls, SC, ST children and BPL children, wherever (i) State Governments have, incorporated provision of school uniforms as a child entitlement in their State RTE Rules, and (ii) State Governments are not already providing uniforms from the State budgets.

Procurement of uniforms would, however, be in decentralized mode at the Gram Panchayat or SMC level.

(vii) Transportation:

Children in remote habitations with sparse populations or in urban areas where availability of land is a problem may not find access to neighbourhood schools. Such children may be provided support for transporta­tion.

(viii) Residential Facilities:

There are certain areas in the country where it may be unviable to set up schools.

Residential facilities may be provided for these children under SSA. However, there may an inherent difficulty in locating such schools all over the country; the establishment of residential schools should therefore be restricted, as an excep­tion measure to sparsely populated, hilly/forested terrains and for urban deprived children, street children and children without adult protection.

(ix) Augmenting academic support at block and cluster level to ensure that States follow the curriculum and evaluation procedure mandated under section 29 of the RTE Act, and provide appropriate and adequate on-site subject support to teachers.

(x) KGBV:

Sanction of KGBVs in educationally backward blocks. An additional 1073 KGBVs have been approved for sanction in educationally backward blocks.

Eleventh Plan Targets for Elementary Education:

(i) Universal enrolment of 6-14 age group children including the hard to reach seg­ment.

(ii) Substantial improvement in quality and standards with the ultimate objective to achieve standards of Kendriya Vidyalayas (KVs) under the Central Board of Sec­ondary Education (CBSE) pattern.

(iii) All gender, social, and regional gaps in enrolments to be eliminated by 2011-12.

(iv) One year pre-school education (PSE) for children entering primary school.

(v) Dropout at primary level to be eliminated and the dropout rate at the elementary level to be reduced from over 5096 to 20% by 2011-12.

(vi) Universalized MDMS at elementary level by 2008-09.

(vii) Universal coverage of ICT at UPS by 2011-12.

(viii) Significant improvement in learning conditions with emphasis on learning basic skills, verbal and quantitative.

(ix) All EGS centres to be converted into regular primary schools.

(x) All States/UTs to adopt NCERT Quality Monitoring Tools.

(xi) Strengthened BRCs/CRCs- 1 CRC for every 10 schools and 5 resource teachers per block.


3. Essay on Secondary Education for Upsc :

A significant feature of India’s secondary school system is the emphasis on inclusion of the disadvantaged sections of the society. Professionals from established institutes are often called to support in vocational training. Another feature of India’s secondary school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to help students to attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing. A significant new feature has been the extension of SSA to secondary education in the form of the Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan. A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was started in 1974 with a focus on primary education.

But which was converted into Inclusive Educa­tion at Secondary Stage another notable special programme, the Kendriya Vidyalaya project, was started for the employees of the Central Government of India, who are distributed throughout the country. The government started the Kendriya Vidyalaya project in 1965 to provide uniform education in institutions following the same syllabus at the same pace regardless of the location to which the employee’s family has been transferred.

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan:

This scheme was launched in March, 2009 with the objective to enhance access to sec­ondary education and improve its quality and the implementation of the scheme started from 2009-10. It is envisaged to achieve an enrolment rate of 75% from 52.26% in 2005-06 at secondary stage within 5 years by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of any habitation.

The other objectives include improving quality of education imparted at secondary level through making all secondary schools conform to prescribed norms, removing gender, socio-economic and disability barriers, providing universal access to secondary level education by 2017, i.e., by the end of 12th Five Year Plan and achieving universal retention by 2020.


(i) Broad physical targets include providing facilities for estimated,

(ii) Additional enrolment of more than 32 lath/students by 2011-12,

(iii) Strengthening of about 44,000 existing secondary schools,

(iv) Opening of around 11,000 new secondary schools,

(v) Appointment of additional teachers to improve Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR), and

(vi) Construction of more than 80,000 additional classrooms.


Important physical facilities to be provided in schools include:

(i) Additional class rooms,

(ii) Laboratories,

(iii) Libraries,

(iv) Art and crafts room,

(v) Toilet blocks,

(vi) Drinking water provisions,

(vii) Electricity/telephone/internet connectivity.

Targets for the Eleventh Plan:

The Eleventh Plan aims to:

(i) Raise the minimum levels of education to class X and accordingly universalize access to secondary education;

(ii) Ensure good quality secondary education with focus on Science, Mathematics, and English;

(iii) Aim towards major reduction in gender, social, and regional gaps in enrolments, dropouts, and school retention;

(iv) The norm will be to provide a secondary school within 5 km and a higher second­ary school within 7-8 km of every habitation; and

(v) The GER in secondary education is targeted to increase from 52% in 2004-05 to 75% by 2011-12 and the combined secondary and senior secondary GER from 40% to 65% in the same period. Scheme for Universal Access and Quality at the Sec­ondary Stage (SUCCESS).

Problems of Secondary Education

1. Different committees and commissions before and after independence have mentioned various aims of secondary education. But secondary educational institutions in practice do not try to materialise those aims. The so-called aims are practically paper-aims. During pre- independence days the only aim of secondary education was to secure white-collar jobs, this is no doubt a very narrow aim.

Even secondary education is not complete by itself. It is a stepping-stone for admis­sions in colleges and universities. Secondary education is thus re­garded as a passport for higher education. Hence the main defect of secondary education is its aimlessness. Secondary education must have definite aims related to practical life and the secondary schools should try to realise those aims in every possible manner.

2. Secondary education is theoretical, bookish, narrowly conceived and unpractical. It creates social misfits and does not fulfill the needs of life. It is not life-centred. It should not increase unemploy­ment and should help to produce able, self-dependent and patriotic citizens.

The current secondary education has aggravated the un­employment problem. Therefore we have to make our secondary ed­ucation so useful that the students having passed this stage do not run only for admission to universities and unemployment does not increase and they become economically independent by having acquired some vocational skills of productive nature acquired some vocational skills of productive nature.

3. The present secondary education is not related to productivity. In most of the western countries secondary education is highly related to productivity. But this is not so in our country. Secondary education in India does not help to augment national production both in agricultural as well as in industrial.

Both the Mudaliar Commis­sion (1952-53) and the Kothari Commission (1964-66) strongly rec­ommended for making secondary education productive. But this has not been achieved at the desired level. The schemes of core peri­phery and work experience have failed miserably and the plus- two stage has not yet been vocationalised as propose.

4. The secondary education in our country is not helpful for economic development of the nation and rapid social transformation. No man-power training is possible in the present set-up of secondary education in India. Secondary education must prepare an adolescent for India’s technical and industrial growth though proper utiliza­tion of the natural resources.

5. In the present system of secondary education there is little scope for total development of personality or individuality which is the avowed aim of education in all ages and in all countries. Adoles­cent stage which covers secondary education is the proper stage for such development.

India now requires men of glorified and sublime personalities and not men of timid characters. Secondary education has a role to play in this regard.

6. There is little scope for character training in the present system of secondary education. Character is the crown of life. Value educa­tion is essential for character training but our secondary education does not attach much importance to education for values such as toleration, cooperation, fellow-feeling, truthfulness, modesty, re­spect to teachers or elders, spirit of self-respect, faith in national cultural tradition, secularism etc. Since independence our society is confronted with crisis of character and rapid erosion of eternal val­ues.

The secondary school stage is the suitable stage for the cultiva­tion of those values. Our main purpose is to produce youths of char­acter. Our education has not only to impart bookish knowledge but to give such a knowledge which may contribute to personal, social and national prosperity. We want all-round development of our children-physical, mental, moral, spiritual etc.

7. Secondary education also does not provide opportunities for leader­ship training. Students are the future leaders in different walks of our national life and as such their traits of leadership should be cultivated when they are young and sensitive enough. Secondary stage can be regarded as the breeding ground for leadership train­ing. Organisation of and participation in co-curricular activities can help in this regard to a great extent.

8. The present secondary education in our country is not congenial to effective, democratic and productive citizenship which is the need of the hour. We need able, dutiful and self-dedicated citizens for making our infant democracy a success, who are imbued with the spirit of intelligent patriotism contributing to the rapid prosperity of the country. Our secondary education does not help to develop ci­vic sense in children and to shoulder gallantly multifarious civic duties and responsibilities. Independent India requires citizens trained in democratic values of life and citizenship.

9. Development of social efficiency is not possible in the present set­up of secondary education in our country. Every individual has a so­cial self. For an integrated personality development of this social self is essential which is neglected by our secondary education. There is also close relationship between education and society. If social aspect of education is neglected no society can prosper and at­tain the desired growth.

10. Man cannot live by bread alone. He wants something more which is nothing but culture. But education and culture are not synonymous. Culture is more than education. Still education forms the basis of culture and develops the cultural potentiality of an individual. National cultural regeneration is not possible without cultural re­generation of the individual. Secondary education should enrich our traditional culture-pattern and imbibe new cultural ingredients from other countries.

11. Secondary education today neglects co-curricular activities. Mere curricular activities cannot help to develop all round personality of an individual. Here lies the need of organisation of a co- curricular activities.

12. Physical education is not emphasised by the present system of sec­ondary education in our country. Today we need Spartan outlook. Human beings are essentially psycho-physical in nature. National security depends to a large extent on its able bodied citizens. Sound mind is not possible without sound body. Swami Vivekananda greatly emphasised physical education. “We can reach God even through football”, Swamiji remarked. Most of the secondary schools of our country possess minimum facilities for physical edu­cation. Many of them have no play-grounds. This is particularly true in cities where the students play in the streets. 60% of secon­dary students suffer from malnutrition. However, new Education Policy (1986) has emphasised physical education.

13. Many secondary schools still suffer from the inadequate number of able and trained teachers. Training is a pre-requisite condition for successful teaching and professional growth. Able and suitable teachers are also not available everywhere particularly in rural Areas.

Our secondary teachers’ training programme is also faulty and has made the problem crucial. Teachers should be trained in basic and vocational curriculum also. Teachers are like the spinal chord of the school. The school cannot function well if the teachers are inefficient and inadequate in number. Today the schools have few able teachers. Now we need urgently vocationally trained teachers to make the scheme of vocationalization of secondary ed­ucation a success.

Still many secondary teachers are untrained. Dearth of efficient and properly trained teachers is a peculiar fea­ture of present-day secondary schools. The teaching profession do not attract talented students. Conditions of work and service of teachers should be improved. Private tuition by teachers should also be discouraged.

14. The curriculum poses a great problem in the field of secondary education. It is difficult to have an universally accepted curriculum because the needs of one state differ from the others. Our country is a multi-lingual and multi-religious country. The NCERT and the All India Council for Secondary Education are trying to forge out a universally accepted curriculum.

In recent years the Secondary School Curriculum is almost uniform with some variations according to local needs. Inspite of this there are some inherent defects in the curriculum. Both the Mudaliar and Kothan Commissions made some fruitful suggestions to make the secondary- school curriculum up-to-date and useful.

But these have not produced the desired results. Many defects still persist in the curriculum and new defects have appeared. It does not properly reflect the needs of the individual as well as the society. It is narrowly conceived and is largely of unilateral character. There is not sufficient variety and elasticity.

It is theoretical bookish unpractical and not life-centred. “The education imparted in most secondary schools is, generally speaking, of the academic type leading at the end of the school course to university admission rather than entry into a vocation”. The curriculum is heavy and overloaded particularly at the plus-two stage.

The curriculum still lays great emphasis on the acquisition of the knowledge and comparatively little on the building up of those skills, aptitudes, values and interests which are essential for the full development of the student personality. There is little scope for vocational training which is essential for rapid economic development, proper utilization of natural and human resources of the country.

15. The curriculum has intimate connection with the method of teach­ing. The method followed by most of the secondary teachers is ste­reotyped, obsolete and un-psychological. Modern activity-centred methods are not applied by the teachers. Many of them are not fa­miliar with these methods and as such they fail to attract the at­tention tension of the students.

As a result the lessons become unproductive and the effects are far from satisfactory. There are practical diffi­culties also in way of applying modem methods of teaching in our school situations. Many schools are not properly equipped with la­boratory and library facilities, necessary teaching aids and appli­ances.

Most of the secondary schools are over-crowded, ill-staffed and suffer from inadequate number of teachers and accommodation. The average teacher-pupil ratio is 1: 50. But for effective arid creative teaching it should be 1: 30. There is little scope for tutori­al work. No fruitful teaching is possible without personal contact between the teacher and the taught.

16. Next comes the problem of text-books which is also intimately connected with the problem of curriculum and methodology of teaching. Many students suffer from want of text-books which are very costly. Text-books are often changed. This has added fuel to the fire. 45% of the population in our country lives below the subsistence level. It is not possible for them to purchase text-books for their children and to supply necessary stationery needed for educational purposes.

They cannot bear other educational expenses of their wards. It might have been better if text-books could be supplied free of cost. In many socialistic as well as capitalistic countries text books are supplied free of cost upto secondary level. But our educational system has not yet been nationalised and the budgetary provision for education is very scanty. It is only 2½ %. Under the circumstances, the Govt. should give financial assistance to the private publishers so that the prices of text-books may be kept at reasonable level. Due to competition the private publishers also will be forced to maintain the reasonable quality or standard.

17. The entire system of education is vitiated by examination. The educational achievements of students are measured by the single measuring rod known as examination. The prevailing essay-type examination dominates the educational arena. But it has developed a large number of defects and as such it is no longer regarded as the only measuring rod for determining the academic achievements of students.

The main charge against the essay-type examination is that it is vitiated by subjectivity. For this reason, along with essay-type examination which has its own intrinsic merits objective type tests and short-answer type tests have been introduced. But the latter two are not entirely free from defects.

It is true that these have improved the examination process and made the system more scientific and reliable. We cannot reject the essay type examination altogether. But it should be reformed in the desired channels. Some reforms are needed after careful thinking and a good deal of research.

The Radhakrishna Commission, the Hartog Committee, the Mudaliar Commission and the Kothari Commission all have made important recommendations and observations in respect to examination reform. Many of these have been put into operation and still many are under consideration. External examination alone should not be accepted as a tool for measuring the academic achievements of students.

Internal evaluation throughout the year by the internal teachers should also be used for examining the students. Bi-weekly or monthly tests of the students should also be considered for assessing their academic achievements. Instead of percentile marks abilities of students should be measured in grades. For this purpose a five point scale (A, B, C, D, E) may be used. Along with essay type questions at least 30 percent of the total marks should be assigned to objective tests.

18. Many secondary schools suffer from inadequate finance. Our educa­tional system has not yet been nationalised. But public and private sectors run side by side. Most of the secondary schools are under pri­vate sector. Government schools are very few. The schools run by private sector have always to face the problem of inadequate funds.

For running of the schools they have to look for the Govt. grants which are very meagre and paid irregularly. As a result pri­vate aided schools cannot maintain proper standard. Teachers are not paid regularly and disgruntled teachers cannot act properly. Neither have they had good school buildings nor good teachers and suitable teaching materials. Both the Govt. and the public should co-operate with each other for organising the necessary funds for the schools.

19. The teacher-training programmes in our country are inadequate and far from satisfactory. Teaching is a difficult task. It is an art. Only academic degrees cannot make one an able and ideal teacher. Teaching is not only a profession; it is also a mission. Dedicated teachers are now-a-days very few. Training is essential for every teacher. Still many secondary teachers are untrained.

Number of training institutions is limited. It is very difficult to get admission in training colleges. Existing institutions are overloaded. The peri­od of training is also too short. It is ten to eleven months. At the sec­ondary level it should be at least two years. The most objectionable part of the training programme is the conducting of the practice teaching.

Above all what the teachers learn during training period they can not apply it after going back to their respective schools. So training remains as paper-training. For professional growth and efficiency there should be adequate arrangements for in service training programmes during puja or summer vacations through the organisation of refresher course, short intensive course, workshop, seminar, conference etc.

20. The administration of the secondary schools does not appear to be efficient. Education administration in India is a three-tier process – Central, Slate and district. Secondary education is for all practical purposes under the control of the State Govts. though the Central Govt. formulates general policy and guidelines applicable all over the country uniformly. But there is a dual administration over secondary schools in each state – the Department of Education and the State Board of Secondary Education.

The Board determines the nature of the curriculum, text books and conducts examinations. The Department formulates general policies, allocates funds and takes measures for professional efficiency and training of teachers. Because of this dual control the secondary schools are not achiev­ing their purposes, because of lack of harmony and co-ordination between the officers of these two controlling units.

In fact, there should be a mutual cooperation between the two for achieving the objectives of secondary education. Unusual delay takes place in taking important decisions and in disposing files. Red-tapism is the order of the day. Due to ill decisions or delay in decisions schools and their teachers had to suffer tremendous financial hardships.

At least 25,000 litigations are pending in West Bengal. These cases should be disposed of at an early date in the interest of education irrespective of political affiliation of teachers. Supervi­sion is a part of administration. Secondary schools are not properly supervised by school inspectors. Inspection is almost a far cry in the field of secondary education. There are different graded Govt. In­spectors, but the number of inspectors is not sufficient.

The inspec­tors are so busy with their files in their offices that they get little time for supervision and inspection of schools under their charge. Moreover, the attitude of the inspectors in respect of teachers is be­low the norm. Their attitude appears to be that of a master. But they should know that they are co-partners of teachers. Their at­titude should be democratic and they should try to solve the diffi­culties of the teachers and problems of the schools.

21. Many schools suffer from an atmosphere of indiscipline and non- academic activities. This is mainly due to the influence of politi­cal parties. Almost every political party has a student wing and it very often interferes with the day to day administration of schools. This is not desirable in the interest of smooth running of school administration and maintaining academic atmosphere in schools.

It is true that sometimes school management takes wrong decisions and makes delay in taking decisions which aggravate the situation. All litigations and problems should be solved through discussions round the table. Probably for maintaining proper academic tone in educational institutions the National Edu­cation Policy, 1986 has proposed depoliticisation of education. The proposal is welcomed from academic point of view.

22. The education imparted in secondary schools is not psychologically sound as it does not provide ample opportunities to the students to receive education according to their abilities, interests and apti­tudes It is not based on the pedagogical concept of individual dif­ferences.

It does not fulfill the needs and aspirations of adolescent children. The only remedy to this situation is the introduction of varied and diversified curriculum in secondary schools.

23. Since independence the growth of secondary education is tremen­dous. The demand for secondary education has increased to a large extent because it is now regarded as the minimum level of education for an individual. Still all the students between the age group 14 – 18 are not provided with opportunities for having secondary educa­tion.

All who have completed elementary education are not getting admissions because of dearth of accommodation. The only solution to this pressing problem is “open door policy” in respect of admis­sion in secondary schools. Admission should not be selective up to Class X. More schools should be set up. More expansion is needed but surely not at the cost of qualitative improvement.

24. Secondary education has not yet been nationalised. It is still a privilege in the hands of a certain sections of population. This is extremely regrettable. Secondary schools differ in their standards. There are thousands of sub-standard schools in the country. Due to financial difficulties many students are deprived of secondary edu­cation.

Secondary education is not even free throughout India. Boys enjoy more educational privileges than girls. Educational privileg­es are far better in cities than in villages. This situation should be ameliorated by providing equal opportunities of education to all children reading in secondary schools irrespective of caste, creed, sex, social and economic status. This is possible only through na­tionalisation of education.

25. Since independence quality of secondary education has suffered a set-back. This is caused by various reasons such as paucity of funds want of suitable equipment’s, ever increasing pressure on enrolment, dearth of able and dedicated teachers and faulty planning. There is large number of sub-standard secondary schools in the country.

A good number of superfluous schools also exist. Many schools are devoid of minimum infrastructural provision. Secondary education is still the weakest link in our educational chain. Wastage is mounting in secondary level also due to failures. Only qualitative improvement of secondary education can reduce this huge wastage. Quantity and quality should go hand in hand.

4. Essay on Higher Education for Upsc :

India’s higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States. The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission (India), which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state. Accreditation for higher learning is over­seen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission.

University Grants Commission:

The University Grants Commission (UGC), established in November, 1956 as a statutory body of the Government of India through an Act of Parliament, has been vested with two main responsibilities: that of coordination, determination and maintenance of standards in higher education and that of providing funds to achieve its objectives.

Besides, the mandate of the UGC includes advising the Central and State Governments on the measures necessary for improvement of university education, saving as a vital link between the Union and State Governments and institutions of higher learning, monitor­ing developments in the field of university and collegiate education, etc. The UGC func­tions from New Delhi as well as through its six Regional Offices located in Bangalore, Bhopal, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Pune.

Growth of Higher Education:

The growth has been phenomenal since India’s independence at which time there were 20 Universities and 500 Colleges. The total profile of the type and the number of Higher Education Institutions in summarized in the Exhibit 3.2

Enhancing and Sustaining Access to Higher Education:

The UGC continued its support to the universities and colleges for their development by making budgetary plan provisions for various programmes during the 11th FYP. Finan­cial assistance to Central and eligible deemed to be universities, and colleges affiliated to Delhi University and Banaras Hindu University was provided both under Plan and Non- Plan. Assistance to State universities and their affiliated colleges was provided only under Plan. During 11th FYP period (2007-2012), general development assistance has been provided to individual Universities based on the outlay determined by the UGC.

The provision of General Development Assistance programme of the UGC is intended for the overall development of the Universities, covering aspects like enhancing access, ensuring equity, imparting relevant education, making management more effective and transparent, enhancing facilities for students, augmenting research facilities and any other plans of the Universities.

To meet the requirements of the university in terms of infrastructure, salary of staff, recruitment, books and journals, campus development, innovative research activities, student’s amenities, new extension activities, ICT require­ments, etc. financial assistance was provided by the UGC under this Development Assis­tance. As many as 16 schemes have been merged with the General Development Assis­tance for Universities and Colleges and separate allocations have been made for these schemes as given below.

Of the 42 Central Universities, 38 were given maintenance and development granting by the UGC. The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), New Delhi, the Central Agri­cultural University (CAU), Imphal and the Indian Maritime University (IMU), Chennai are being funded by the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Shipping and Transport respectively. The newly esta­blished Central University of Jammu, Jammu is yet to start its functioning.

Of the 334 State universities, the UGC has been making budgetary plan allocation for only 133 of them, excluding medical and agricultural universities which are funded by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture respectively. Special grants are being provided to other State Universities including Agricultural Universities with Engineering and Tech­nology Departments.

The UGC provided financial assistance for establishment of a Model Degree College in each of the identified 374 Educationally Backward Districts (EBDs) where Gross Enrol­ment Ratio (GER) for higher education is less than the national GER with the main focus on enhancing access to degree courses in EBDs of the country, so as to achieve expan­sion in higher education with inclusion, equity and quality.

Essentially, the motivation is for the State Governments to uplift the educationally under-served districts in enhanc­ing access to higher education. The UGC provided financial assistance to the extent of one third of the capital cost for establishment of each college, limited to Rs.2.67 crore. For special category status, the UGC share shall be 50% of the capital cost limited to Rs.4 crore for each college. The Model College may be the UGC assistance to construct/ extend various.

Policy Initiatives:

Important initiatives taken by the Government are given below:

(i) National Commission for Higher Education:

Government is considering a proposal for the setting up of National Commission/Coun­cil for Higher Education and Research for prescribing standards of academic quality and defining policies for advancement of knowledge in higher educational institutions based on the principle of enhancing autonomy of universities and institutions of higher learning and research.

(ii) National Accreditation Regulatory Authority:

The National Accreditation Regulatory Authority for Higher Educational Institutions Bill, 2010 recently introduced in the Parliament, proposes to make accreditation mandatory for all higher educational institutes.

(iii) Prohibition of Unfair Practices:

Prohibition of unfair practices in Technical Educational Institutions, Medical Educational Institutions and University Bill, 2010 recently introduced in the Parliament, aims to curb malpractices in higher education.

(iv) Education Tribunals:

The Educational Tribunals Bill, 2010 recently introduced in the Parliament, provides for a two tier system of Tribunals to deal with disputes between students, teachers and institutions.

(v) The Foreign Educational Institutions (Regulation of Entry and Operations) Bill, 2010:

The Foreign Educational Institutions (Regulation of Entry and Operations) Bill, 2010 recently introduced in the Parliament, provides a time bound and transparent system for the approval process as also for regulation of Foreign Educational Institutions.

(vi) Academic Reforms:

Academic reforms at the institutional level are the necessary conditions for the improve­ment in Quality.

Some important measures for academic reforms are:

(a) Phase-wise introduction of credit system

(b) Semester system

(c) Continuous evaluation

(d) Updating of curricula to retain its relevance

(e) Inter-disciplinarily in developing curricula

(f) Competitive admissions

(g) Innovations in Teaching Learning Methods

(h) Rewards to meritorious teachers and researchers

(i) Teachers to upgrade qualifications and knowledge.

Inclusive Education:

The objective of inclusiveness will be achieved through the following:

(a) Reduction of regional imbalances;

(b) Support to institutions located in border, hilly, remote, small towns, and educa­tionally backward areas;

(c) Support to institutions with larger student population of SCs, STs, OBCs, minori­ties, and physically challenged;

(d) Support to the SCs, STs, OBCs, minorities, physically challenged, and girl students with special scholarships/fellowships, hostel facilities, remedial coaching and other measures;

(e) Setting up of an ‘Equal Opportunity Office’ in all universities to bring all schemes relating to this group under one umbrella for effective implementation.

Quality Improvement:

Quality improvement in higher education will be brought about through restructuring academic programmes to ensure their relevance to modern market demands; domestic and global linkages with employers and external advisory resource support groups and tracer studies; greater emphasis on recruitment of adequate and good quality teachers; complete revamping of teaching/learning methods by shifting from traditional repeti­tive experiments to open-ended design-oriented work for encouraging invention and innovation; compulsory interactive seminar-tutorials, broadening the content of Science and engineering programmes to strengthen fundamental concepts, improving learning opportunities and conditions by updating text books and learning material; and improv­ing self-directed learning with modern aids and development of IT network.


5. Essay on Technical Education [Could be also used as a Speech]:

Technical Education plays a vital role in human resource development of the country by creating skilled manpower, enhancing industrial productivity and improving the quality of life. Technical Education covers presently courses and programmes in engineering, technology, management, architecture, town planning, pharmacy and applied arts & crafts, hotel management and catering technology.

The technical education system in the country can be broadly classified into three categories – Central Government funded Institutions, State Government/ State-funded Institutions & Self-financed Institutions. In 2010-11 there were 79 centrally funded Institutions in the country.

The 79 centrally funded Insti­tutes of Technical & Science Education are as follows:


There are four boards of Apprenticeship Training (BOSTs)



The Central Government is also implementing the following schemes/programmes:

(i) Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP) assisted by the World Bank.

(ii) Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences & Technology (INDEST).

The major challenges before the technical education system are one of access, equity and inclusion. Another area of concern is the inadequate availability of faculty both in terms of quality and in numbers. Promotion of R&D efforts, improvement in employability of trained graduates and postgraduates coming out of the technical institutes, are some of the areas where efforts are required.

The XIth Five Year Plan envisages major expansion in the number of centrally funded Technical Education Institutions which have been summarized in the following Exhibit 3.4:


1. Access:

Several new measures were taken to implement the government vision of providing increased access with equity and excellence. Eight (8) new IITs, four (4) new IIMs and ten (10) new NITs have been set up and are functional. IIMs at Udaipur and Kashipur would become functional from 2011-12.

2. Quality:

Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme envisages on focus in strengthening the Institutions to produce high quality engineers for bet­ter employability, establish Centres of Excellence for focused applicable research, Training of faculty for effective teaching, enhancing Institutional; and system Man­agement effectiveness.

3. Inclusion:

The Centrally funded technical Institutions have also implemented Cen­tral Educational Institutions (Reservations in Admission) Act, 2006 from the year 2007-08 which provides 15%, 7-1/2% and 27% reservation in admission for SCs, STs and OBCs respectively.

4. Submission of Polytechnics under Coordinate’s Action for Skill Development:

The objective of the scheme is to enhance employment oriented skilled manpower through polytechnic. Under the scheme, financial assistance is provided to the state/UT Government of setting up of 300 new polytechnics in un-served and underserved districts of the country.

5. Technical Institution Set Up in North East Region:

Several technical institution like (i) Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (Assam); (ii) Rajiv Gandhi Indian In­stitute of Management (RGIIM) Shillong, (Meghalaya); (iii) National Institute of Technology (NIT) Silchar (Assam); (iv) National Institute of Technology (NIT), Agartala (Tripura); (v) North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (NERIST), Itanagar (Arunachal Pradesh); and (vi) Central Institute of Technology (CIT), Kokrajhar (Assam) etc. are taking care of the higher education in the North East Region.

6. Governance:

With the enforcement of National Institute of Technology Act, 2007, w.e.f. 15.8.2007, 20 NITs are declared as Institute of National Importance. The NIT (Amendment) Bill, 2010 for incorporation of IISERs under the Act was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 15th April, 2010. To bring the 8 new IITs under its ambit and conversion of IT BHU into IIT, the amendment of the Institute of Technology Act, 1961 has been introduced in Lok Sabha.

Targets in Eleventh Plan:

Targets for technical education are as follows:

(i) During the Eleventh Plan, intake of technical education institutions needs to grow at an estimated 15% annually, to meet the skilled manpower needs of our growing economy. Schemes for Expansion and Up-gradation.

(ii) The Eleventh Plan envisages setting up of 8 new IITs, 7 new IIMs, 10 new NITs, 3 IISERs, 20 IIITs, and 2 new SPAs. In establishing these institutions the scope for PPPs will be explored.

(iii) Seven selected technical institutions will be upgraded subject to their signing MoU on commitments to making reforms in governance structure, admission proce­dure, etc. and aligning with character of the national institutions.

(iv) In the location and selection of sites for the new institutions, clustering will be a key consideration and the States will be incentivized for co-locating institutions in strategic locations.


6. Essay on Today’s Education System: 

Strategies and Thrust Areas in the 7th Plan for Education System

The Seventh Plan provides for reorientation of the education system so as to prepare the country to meet the challenges of the next century.

The main thrust areas in the Seventh Plan would be:

(i) Achievement of universal elementary education;

(ii) Eradication of illiteracy in the age-group 15-35 years;

(iii) Vocationalisation and skill-training programmes at different levels of education;

(iv) Up-gradation of standards and modernization at all stages of education with special emphasis on science and environment and on value orientation;

(v) Provision of facilities for education of high quality and excellence in every district of the country; and (vi) removal of obsoles­cence in an modernization of technical education.

The major strategies for achieving these objectives would include effec­tive decentralized planning and organizational reforms, promotion of non- formal and open learning systems, adoption of low-cost alternatives and opti­mum use of resources, forging of beneficial linkages with industry and devel­opment agencies, and mobilization of community resources and social in­volvement.

1. Elementary Education:

The 7th Plan attaches highest priority to realizing universalization of elementary education for children in the age- group 6-14 years by 1990. The emphasis will shift from mere enrolment to re­tention of pupils in schools and to the attainment by them of basic elements of learning.

The objective is sought to be achieved through a combination of formal and non-formal methods, focussing sharply on the needs of girls and of children belonging to the economically and socially weaker sections.

The enrolment at the elementary stage is estimated to have reached nearly 112.10 million by the end of 6th Plan (1984-85). For achieving the goal of universalization by the end of 7th Plan (1985-90), over 25.53 (11.46 + 14.07) million children will have to be additionally enrolled in full-time schools.

The total projected enrolment in full-time schools (I-VIII) by the end of the 7th Plan (1989-90) is estimated to reach 137, 63 including boys and girls (80.12 + 57.51). To achieve this target effectively, sustained efforts will have to be made to reduce the number of drop-outs.

Universalization of elementary education has to be achieved through non-formal methods for those children who are not able to attend full-time schools. The number of children to be covered by the non-formal programme is estimated to reach 25 million. Non-formal education in the 7th Plan, will, therefore, have to be expanded at a fast pace and a variety of forms have to be provided. Non-formal system should be made flexible and linked to the formal system.

For the success of the programme adequate arrangements and planning should be made before-hand as regards teaching-learning materi­als supply of properly trained teachers, provision of finances and other infrastructural arrangements . Non-formal education centres should be educa­tionally integrated with development programmes.

The role of the teachers is most crucial in achieving universal elemen­tary education. They can play a leading role in improving the quality of pri­mary education. In-service training of teachers thus becomes a programme of high priority. Training of teachers will include, apart from pedagogy, the use of mass media, science and technology, planning, curriculum design ac­cording to local needs and conditions and use of community resources.

There will also be special emphasis on teaching methods and measures for reducing the number of dropouts. Existing teacher training institutions will be devel­oped and strengthened accordingly. Facilities will have to be created for the training of additional teachers required during the 7th Plan period. The ex­isting teacher training institutions may not cope with the huge number of teachers required (2.5 million ) due to lack of facilities and funds.

It is, therefore, necessary to think of a variety of training programmes which include:

a) In-service education by utilizing the mass media;

b) Despatch of teacher-guidance notes by training schools;

c) Publication of bulletins informing teachers of new developments; and

d) Use of correspondence courses.

Drop-outs and non-attendance of children at the primary stage of educa­tion are due to poor school facilities, unrelated curriculum, poor methods of teaching and grinding poverty. Teacher training programmes should be so re­oriented as to tackle these factors successfully. In addition other supportive measures such as the improvement of facilities, increasing community awareness, curriculum reforms, improvement of the methods of teaching, utilization of the local community resources and earn-while you-learn scheme, etc., will be introduced or expanded selectively according to local re­quirements.

Girls are lagging far behind the boys in respect of education. In the 7th Plan, the focus of effort will be on promotion of girls’ education through appointment of women teachers, provision of more facilities such as free uniforms and midday meals and other incentives.

Special emphasis will be given to the enhancement of quality and effi­ciency of elementary education. The 7th Plan will seek to provide specific funds for those programmes which will enhance the efficiency of the system.

For qualitative improvement of elementary education special care is needed in respect of school buildings, text-books, revision of curriculum, preparation of suitable teaching-learning material and population education. Due to eco­nomic constraints optimal use should be made of the available infrastructure and funds. Pre-school education can help to increase retention rate in elemen­tary schools.

2. Adult Education:

Eradication of adult illiteracy and continuing edu­cation for adult literates is a major thrust area in the 7th Plan. The national target is to make literate all the illiterates in the age-group 15-35. This is no doubt a formidable task. The number to be covered is 90 million. The goal can only be achieved through a mass movement involving Government agencies, voluntary social organizations, educational institutions, libraries, students,’ teachers, employees (commercial and industrial undertakings) and the com­munity.

This programme should also be effectively linked with various de­velopment programmes. Village panchayats, mahila mandals, community centres, employers, Nehru Yuvak Kendras, N.S.S. can also play a major role in the programme of eradication of illiteracy. Programmes for motivating the adult-learners should also be implemented on a mass scale.

A net-work of libraries and the preparation of literature for neo-literates as a follow-up measure will also help in a great way in removing illiteracy from the coun­try. Education of adults should be based on their social and economic needs and activities. As a part of the post-literacy and follow-up services, short- education, condensed training courses will be organized for upgrading the skills of the neo-literates and for increasing their awareness about social re­alities. Citizenship education of adults will be a necessary part of the entire education system.

3. Secondary Education:

Since independence secondary education has ex­panded rapidly. Its demand has been growing. Expansion of elementary edu­cation has added further impetus to this growth. Hence more facilities have to be provided to cope with this growing demand. This demand will be met by better utilization of the existing resources.

Unplanned growth of high/ higher secondary schools will be checked. Growth of economically non­viable and educationally inefficient institutions should be avoided. In ex­panding the facilities, special attention will be given to the needs of the backward areas, of under-privileged sections of the population and of girls. Girls’ education will be free up to the higher secondary stage.

The teaching of science and mathematics at high/higher secondary stage of education will be strengthened “and made universal. Efforts will be made to update and modernize science curricula, improve laboratories and li­braries in schools and ensure the quality of science teachers through large- scale in-service training programmes. Environment Education will form an important aspect of science education.

The socially useful productive work (work-experience) programme com­ponent seeks to highlight the link between work and education and to deve­lop positive work ethics and work habits. The programme should be inte­grated with the local community and based on mobilization of the local re­sources. Some courses/activities of pre-vocational character will also be in­troduced for more effective implementation of this programme.

To link education with productivity, a major impetus will be given in the 7th Plan to vocationalisation of the higher secondary stage. Facilities for vocational education will be diversified to cover a large number of fields in agriculture, industry, trade and commerce, and services. The skills impart­ed will be of adequate standard for securing gainful employment or self- employment. To meet the growing demand vocational courses in more educa­tional institutions will be introduced.

For qualitative improvement of secondary education the media of mass communication such as Radio and T.V. will be used extensively in the 7th Plan period. Facilities for production of the requisite-audio-visual materi­als will be provided.

For continuous improvement in the quality of secondary education the system of in-service training of teachers should be consolidated and im­proved. The new communication technology will be explored for this purpose. Training of personnel required for effective use of modern communication technology and computers in education will be given very high priority.

Education has a crucial contribution to make towards promoting national integration, understanding and a sense of togetherness and harmony. There is therefore, great need for an integrated and value oriented education with a national perspective. This programme should be carried out through the, organization of various curricular and co-curricular activities.

4. University Education:

The main emphasis in higher education will be on consolidation, improvement in standards and reforms in the system to make higher education more relevant to national needs and to link higher education with employment and economic development. Expansion of general higher education will be carefully planned.

The weaker sections and back­ward areas should be provided with more facilities for higher education through appropriate reservation for admission, scholarships, provision of hostel facilities, etc. A network of facilities will be provided through open universities, correspondence courses and part-time education to meet social demand and the needs of continuing education.

There is an urgent need for restructuring of under-graduate courses to make it more relevant and useful according to local and regional needs. Ap­plication oriented courses will be given due emphasis.

The Indira Gandhi National Open University will function as a pace- setting institution and as a model (central) resource centre for coordination of programmes and development of models for distance education, documenta­tion and dissemination of information and organisation of appropriate sup­port programmes. The six regional centres of educational technology would also serve as important resource centres for distance education and correspon­dence courses for higher education.

In the area of post-graduate education arid research, emphasis will be placed on promoting quality programmes, interdisciplinary studies and on new emerging frontiers.

Training of teachers in higher education is another area which needs special attention in the 7th Plan Effective steps will be taken for examination reforms and modernisation of university administra­tion. Besides larger facilities for access to higher Education of SC/ST students, positive programmes will be taken for those students in the forms of remedial teaching, preparatory training and special coaching.

5. Technical Education:

Technical education has to play a leading role in rapid modernization of economy and improvement in productivity.

The main emphasis in the field of technical education during the 7th Plan period will be on the following:

i) Consolidation and optimum utilization of existing infrastructure and facilities;

ii) Identification of the weaknesses in the existing system with a view to strengthening the facilities;

iii) Creation of infrastructure in new areas of emerging technology and provision of necessary facilities for education, training and research in these fields;

iv) Improvement of quality and standards of technical education;

v) Removal of obsolescence;

vi) Modernization of engineering laboratories and workshops in the technical education institutions;

vii) Effective management of the overall system of technical education;

viii) Innovative measures to improve existing facilities;

ix) Institutional linkages between technical education on the one hand and various development programmes on the other.

Technical institutions at all levels should be developed in a balanced way. The Indian Institutes of Technology would be further developed as ad­vanced centres of excellence. The regional and other engineering colleges would also be developed further and modernized. The up-gradation of stan­dards and modernization of polytechnics will also be accorded a high priori­ty.

A major task in the 7th Plan will be the removal of obsolescence in equip­ment and revision of courses in all technical education institutions.

It is also necessary to restructure polytechnic education with a view to:

a) Improving the standard and contents of technical education courses;

b) Providing a lateral entry to the vocational stream from 10 + 2 stage;

c) Restoring the balance in the employment of pattern of engineering graduates and diploma holders; and

d) Providing multi-point entry to the various courses.

The polytechnics will play a significant role in the promotion and de­velopment of vocational education. Special attention will be paid to emerg­ing technologies and computerisation. Development of interaction between the technical institutions and industry will be taken up. Removal of regional imbalances would be another major objective in the development of technical education at all levels. Special attention will be paid to the problems of staff training and retraining and to continuing education for staff.

Polytechnics should undertake extension services for the benefit of the community. Curriculum changes need to be introduced periodically in the light of emerging trends in technology.

6. Science and Technology Component:

Considerable emphasis will be laid on the improvement of the quality of teaching science and technology at all levels of education. A National Science Centre will be established for displaying experimental models and projects. The quality of higher science and technology education has to match the best in the world. Modernisation of laboratories in Indian Institutes of Technology, Regional Engineering Col­leges and other institutions of technical education will be accorded priority for providing research in technology.

An International Centre for Science and Technology Education will be established which will serve as a resource cen­tre and bring modernisation in Science and Technology education. The total estimated outlay for Science and Technology component in the education sec­tor will be of the order of Rs. 1.80 crores.

7. Examination Reform:

The aim and character of present system of edu­cation has adversely been affected by the dominance of the examination sys­tem over the educational processes. This has led to unhealthy trends in the field of education. The system of education has now converted into a mere system of certification for employment. The present system of examination has also led to many unethical practices such as mass copying and leakage of question papers. Examination reforms to remedy the present malaise would be given the utmost priority.

8. Model Secondary Schools:

To provide good quality modern education with Indian values to talented children particularly from the rural areas, it is proposed to set up 432 model secondary schools, one in each district, during the 7th Five Year Plan. These schools will act as centres of excellence or pace-setting institutions and seed farms.

These will offer a common core cur­riculum promoting National Integration and National Values. Admission in these schools will be highly competitive and through a test conducted at block level. Residential facilities will be provided in these schools. An au­tonomous organization will be set up for establishing and running these schools.

9. Scholarships:

The existing schemes of scholarships will be reviewed and, if necessary, re-oriented to help talented students to develop their full potential. The Central Government schemes of national scholarships includ­ing that for talented children from rural areas will continue in the 7th Plan. Besides financial assistance, measures will be taken for their access to, and placement in, good academic institutions.

10. Development of Languages:

In respect of development of languages the following programmes will be undertaken during the 7th Plan period:

(i) Promotion of Hindi (as envisaged under Article 351 of the constitution);

(ii) Promotion of modern Indian languages (as provided in National Policy of Education);

(iii) Promotion of English and other foreign languages; and

(iv) Promotion of Sanskrit and other classical languages such as Arabic and Per­sian. In Sanskrit, emphasis will be given to activities which will ensure preservation of Sanskrit and Vedic traditions in oral and written forms.

11. Art and Culture:

In art and culture the main thrust in the 7th Five Year Plan would be on the development of culture in all aspects, with em­phasis on dissemination, and on the promotion and development of regional cultures and the building up of a sense of oneness and underlying unity and cohesiveness of India.

In order to achieve these objectives, the programmes of the 7th Plan would include:

i) Zonal Cultural Centres being set up in different regions of the coun­try.

ii) The existing activities for dissemination of culture would be stepped up on a wide scale with adequate financial inputs.

iii) Introduction of a cultural component into the educational system at different levels for inter-linking education and culture.

iv) Cultural inputs would be integrated in youth activities and rural de­velopment programmes.

v) For dissemination of culture to the masses, the mass media would be utilized.

vi) Besides the national cultural organizations, the state agencies would also strengthen their programmes. The Central and State agencies would work with greater coordination.

It is proposed to set up seven zonal cultural centres which while develop­ing the unique cultural identifies of various areas in the states would also stress and explore their cultural kinship in relation to the totality of India’s composite culture, highlighting the essential unity in diversity of the Indi­an cultural heritage.

Preservation, documentation and conservation of our rich and varied cultural heritage would continue to receive priority in the 7th Plan. Special emphasis will be accorded to the development of folk and tribal arts.

The Indira Gandhi National Centre for Art will be set up at New Delhi as a resource centre and data base for the arts. The National Theatre will also be established on the same premises.

12. Youth and Sport:

The problems of youth particularly of rural areas and in the age-group 15-34 have to be identified, with existing programmes being strengthened and new programmes devised to involve their participa­tion and development. The N.S.S. and Nehru Yuvak Kendras will be further developed and expanded in the 7th Plan.

A major step will be taken during the 7th Plan to translate into action the newly adopted Resolution on National Sports Policy, by giving high pri­ority to the development of infrastructure and facilities for sports and games at grass-root levels and both in the rural and urban areas. The Sports Author­ity of India will be assisted to pursue its main objective of promotion and broad-basing of sports in the country.

13. Outlay:

The 7th Plan outlay for education is of the order of Rs. 6382.65 crores of which the States and Union Territories combined sector out­lay is Rs. 3994.01 (Rs. 3488. 71 + Rs. 505.30) crores. The pro­vision for education is mainly in the states sector. The centre will play a co­ordinating role and provide leadership and guidance for new and innovative programmes.

In view of the constraints on resources for education the struc­ture and pattern of utilization of plan and non-plan funds needs to be re­viewed, to ensure the optimal use of funds needs to b reviewed, to ensure the optimal use of funds in relation to the goals of the 7th Plan. It is proposed to adopt low-cost designs and devices for effecting economy and for reducing unit costs. Besides non-budgetary resources have to be taped and substantial resources mobilized from the community.

It is also necessary to emphasize the non-monetary inputs in educational development, i.e., better planning, advanced technologies and practices, careful block level and institutional planning, and school mapping, better systems of supervision and administration, monitoring, and evaluation, a good information system, dedicated efforts by teachers, students and educational administrators; intensive utilization of existing resources and facilities, and above all, commitment and active involvement of the local community.