Read this essay to learn about social education in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Introduction to the Social Education in India 2. Objectives of Social Education 3. National Literacy Campaign Programme 4. Social Educational Agencies in India 5. Problems of Social Education in India 6. Administration of Social Education.

Essay Contents:

  1. Essay on the Introduction to Social Education in India
  2. Essay on the Objectives of Social Education
  3. Essay on the National Literacy Campaign Programme
  4. Essay on the Social Educational Agencies in India
  5. Essay on the Problems of Social Education in India
  6. Essay on the Administration of Social Education

1. Essay on the Introduction to Social Education in India:

Democracy is meaningless in a country where people are illiterate. In India social education corresponds to adult education, which is the greatest national shame. But in the progressive countries it is more than adult educa­tion. In those countries, even the educated receives social education. For full­est development of an individual social education is essential. Education is a lifelong process.

At the end of formal education, social Education can make an individual a true, dutiful and responsible citizen. For citizenship train­ing social education is thus a must. A citizen must not be a misfit in the State and in the society at large. He must be a productive and useful citizen. Social Education can deeply help in this regard.

In Allahabad in Jan 1949 Maulana Abul Kalam Azad emphasised that adult education should not be limit­ed to making people merely literate. It should also include education so as to prepare every citizen to play his part in a democratic social order. Since then adult education is known as “social education” in the country.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1949) defines Social Education in the following way:

“By Social Education we mean education for the complete man. It gives him literacy, so that the knowledge of the world may become accessible to him. It will teach him how to harmonize himself with his environment and make the best use of physical condition in which he subsists. It is intended to teach him improved crafts and modes of production so that he can achieve economic betterment. It also aims at teaching him the rudiments of hygiene both for the indi­vidual and community, so that our domestic life may be healthy and pros­perous. Lastly, this education should give him training in citizenship”.

The Central Ministry of Education defined social education in 1963 in the following ways:

1. Social Education is adult education. It means functional literacy.

2. Social Education is education for desirable social change.

3. Social education is education for the betterment of the individual’s social, economic and political and moral life.

4. Social Education is education which enables a community to assume direction of its own development.

5. Social Education is education for better work, better rest, better use of leisure and recreation.

UNESCO named Social Education as fundamental education and de­fined it as — “The only means to elevate mankind emotionally intellectu­ally, morally and materially”.

Indian Education Commission (1964-66) has given three essential ingre­dients of social education:

(1) It must be work based and aimed at creating attitudes and interests and imparting skills and information for efficient doing of a work.

(2) It must create interest in the illiterate to participate actively in vi­tal national problems and in the social and political life of the country.

(3) It must impart skills in 3 Rs. so that he can continue his education independently.

2. Essay on the Objectives of Social Education:

From Individualistic Point of View:

(1) It is needed for those who do not get formal education. It is spread of literacy among grown-up illiterates.

(2) Vocational improvement by providing training according to the need of the locality.

(3) Providing Health Education on fundamental principles and rules of hygiene.

(4) Making conscious about the healthy forms of recreational enjoyment suited to the needs of the community.

(5) Promoting self-development.

(6) Developing social skills, social efficiency and social fitness.

(7) It is training for the improvement of the adult’s economic status.

(8) Inculcation of a sense of rights and duties of citizenship.

From Sociological Point of View:

(1) For promoting social cohesion and national solidarity.

(2) National efficiency and National development. It is needed to aug­ment national productivity.

(3) Development of cultural heritage and values of a Nation.

Education is given in social context and not in the vacuum. Education is irrevocably linked with the class structure of a society, social mobility, ba­sic values and social norms. Education aims at both individual as well as so­cial development. The education given by any society to its children can be expected to be in keeping with the views and ways of life of that particular society.

In India Social Education chiefly means literacy campaign among the illiterate youths and adults. There is a separate Adult Education Directo­rate attached to the Ministry of Education, Government of India, which has given highest priority on this greatest social problem.

In the 6th Five Year Plan rupees 2 hundred crores was allotted for adult education. It is 10% of the total educational outlay. It is no doubt a bold step forward but it was not implemented in right earnest. The Central Government has undertaken a Central programme for Adult Education.

3. Essay on the National Literacy Campaign Programme:

The major steps in this national programme are the following:

(1) This programme should be strengthened. The pilot projects in litera­cy should be implemented as early as possible.

(2) Sramik Vidyapiths play a major role in tackling the problem of il­literacy among the industrial workers. UNESCO is helping greatly in this regard to the Ministry of Education and the NCERT.

(3) Production of reading materials such as model text books, charts, pic­tures, filmstrips, guide books and other audiovisual aids for the neo- literates is essential. These materials are to be supplied freely to the individuals, libraries and other voluntary social organisations.

(4) Training of teaching personnel who will take the responsibility of educating the illiterate is essential.

(5) Developing the library service throughout the country is also a ma­jor step towards eradication of illiteracy. Public libraries have a great role to play in this regard.

(6) Every librarian should be trained in Adult Education scheme.

(7) Voluntary Social Organisations should come forward in this regard to help the Government enterprise.

(8) Every individual particularly primary school teachers should be en­couraged in this regard.

(9) Every educated individual, all social & public leaders should mobil­ise public support in literacy campaign.

(10) Before giving certificates to secondary and higher secondary stu­dents 10 days service should be compulsory. This should be 20 days for college and university students.

(11) Commercial & Industrial undertakings have also responsibilities in educating their illiterate labourers. The labour Department of the Government has also a great role to play in this regard.

(12) The problem is acute in rural areas. Hence night schools should be opened in villages. Educated unemployed may be engaged to conduct the night schools on payment of some remuneration.

(13) Education is a lifelong process. Suitable follow up measures for con­tinuation education for neo-literates are to be taken so that literacy may not be lapsed into illiteracy.

(14) Correspondence Course should also be introduced for the neo- literates. Mass media of communication such as Radio, T.V. and films should be utilised in a great scale for the education of the neo- literates.

(15) University extension service has also to do something for the education of the illiterate masses. National Board of Adult Education has been set up to expedite the activities of National literacy cam­paign programmes.

(16) Illiteracy is much higher in women than men. It is particularly true in respect of rural areas. Massive drive should be taken for education of the illiterate women.

4. Essay on the Social Educational Agencies in India:

(1) Literacy classes:

They impart knowledge in 3R’s only.

(2) Community Centres:

They organise social survey, information pro­cessing, group discussion, crafts, hobbies.

(3) Youth Clubs:

These clubs organise community living, R.G. Party in villages, Games and Sports etc.

(4) Mohila Samitis:

They undertake such works as tailoring knitting child care, maternity welfare, nutrition, balance diet, house-hold skills.

(5) Janata Colleges:

These are like popular colleges in Denmark. There are such colleges in Tripura, Manipur and Kalimpong. They train people in SUPW (Socially useful productive work).

(6) National Social Service Scheme:

Universities and Colleges under­take this scheme. Various social service activities are organised un­der this scheme such as Adult Education, Population Education, So­cial Survey, Cleaning, Health Programme etc.

(7) Youth Festivals and Film Festivals:

They play a great role in pro­moting social Education.

(8) Mass media of communication like Radio and T.V. also impart social education.

(9) NCERT:

It has a Deptt. of Adult and Social Education which under­takes a large number of social Education programmes.

(10) National Board of Adult Education.

(11) Directorate of Adult Education attached to the Ministry of Education.

(12) Universities may open “Departments of Adult Education” like Ma­dras University or Directorates of Adult Education like Burdwan and Kalyani Universities.

5. Essay on the Problems of Social Education in India:

(1) Isolation of Adult Education from the field of formal education. It should be integrated with formal education system.

(2) Differences in cultural background of the students of social education.

(3) Differences in Socio-economic status of students.

(4) Lack of training of social education workers.

(5) Lack of proper knowledge.

(6) Lack of leisure time of the adults.

(7) Fatigue of adults.

(8) Lack of equipment’s and teaching materials.

(9) Lack of motivation.

(10) Lack of propaganda.

(11) Lack of finance.

(12) Poor administration and supervision of the social education centres.

(13) Apathy and indifferent attitude of the educated community in the society.

The Government is fully aware of the problem. But such a menacing problem cannot be successfully tackled by the Government alone. Every in­dividual in the society and all voluntary social organisations should come forward to solve this national problem. It should be tackled on war footing priority.

6. Essay on the Administration of Social Education:

An effective machinery for administration and supervision of social ed­ucation is at work at all levels-the centre, the state, the Local Government, the district and the block. The Union Ministry of Education initiates social’ education schemes. It does this work in co-operation with the Planning Com­mission.

The different Central Ministries like Labour, Industry, Defence, Railway have their own social education programmes. The function of the Ministry of Education is mainly that of co-ordination, guidance and financial assistance. These works are conducted on the basis of the Reports of the State Government and through the Central Advisory Board of Education which conducts conferences and meetings.

The Union Ministry also gives financial assistance to voluntary organisations and State Governments for their social education work. It normally gives grants to run social education programmes, for the production of books and teaching materials for adults and to conduct seminars etc. The Central Social Welfare Board also co-ordinates the activi­ties of various bodies working for social welfare.

It also gives financial as­sistance to different social organisations. It is an autonomous body but acts as a part of the Union Ministry of Education. For guiding and promoting adult education a National Board of Adult Education has been constituted in 1969. It consists of representatives of the Planning Commission, UGC, IUB and the Central Social Welfare Board.

The State Governments have their own ma­chinery to conduct social education within the State. Each State Government has organizations at the State level as well as at the district levels. Most of the State Governments have either Directorates of Social and Adult Educa­tion or Social Education Boards. Each district has a district Officer and an Advisory Committee.