In this essay we will discuss about:- 1. Necessity for Wildlife Conservation 2. Reasons for Depletion of Wildlife 3. Measures 4. Conservation Strategies 5. Protected Areas in India.


  1. Essay on the Necessity for Wildlife Conservation
  2. Essay on Reasons for Depletion of Wildlife
  3. Essay on Measures for Wildlife Conservation in India
  4. Essay on Wildlife Conservation Strategies
  5. Essay on the Protected Areas in India

Essay # 1. Necessity for Wildlife Conservation:

The conservation of wildlife is required for the following benefits:

a. The wildlife helps us in maintaining the ‘balance of nature’. Once this equilibrium is disturbed it leads to many problems. The destruction of carnivores or insectivores often leads to the increase of herbivores which in turn affects the forest vegetation or crops.

b. The wildlife can be used commercially to earn money. It can increase our earning of foreign exchange, if linked with tourism.

c. The preservation of wildlife helps many naturalists and behaviour biologists to study morphology, anatomy, physiology, ecology, behaviour biology of the wild animals under their natural surroundings.

d. The wildlife provides best means of sports and recreation.

e. The wildlife of India is our cultural asset and has deep-rooted effect on Indian art. sculpture, literature and religion.

Essay # 2. Reasons for Depletion of Wildlife:

Many wild animals have become extinct due to various human and natural activities:

a. Absence of cover or shelter to wild animals.

b. Due to deforestation for cultivation or for urbanisation, reductions in area for free movement of wild animals which retard reproductive capacity of certain wild animals like deer, bison, rhino, tiger, etc.

c. Destruction of wild plants of forests for timber, charcoal and fire wood often deprives wild animals their most palatable food and affects their survival.

d. Noise pollution by different transporting media (trucks, buses, rails, aeroplanes, etc.) and polluting river water have adversely affected wild animals.

e. Various natural calamities such as floods, droughts, fires, epidemics, etc., have also caused great destruction of wild animals.

f. Hunting methods of all kinds and for any purpose {i.e., for food, recreation, hide, fur, plumage, musk, tusk, horn, etc.) have caused destruction of wildlife.

Essay # 3. Measures for Wildlife Conservation in India:

In India, following measures have been undertaken for wildlife conservation:

(i) Protection of Natural Habitats:

Jungles and forests are the natural habitats of many wild animals. Hence, these natural habitats should not be destroyed and for this law should be framed to protect such areas from any damage and hunting should be prohibited. However, realizing the importance of natural resources, several national and international organisations have been established to look after such problems.

An international organisation IUCN was established in Switzerland in 1948. This organisation has framed many projects to overcome such problems for which this organisation arranges a meeting once a year in any country.

Its 10th general meeting was held in New Delhi in 1969. For the normal and effective functioning of this organisation, an additional organisation referred to as WWF (World Wildlife Fund) has been established.

The WWF is related to the collection of funds from its member countries, of course, India is also a member, which are 24 in number. This fund is utilized to run several projects dealing with the conservation of natural resources. The Tiger Project in India has been financed by WWF and working efficiently since 1972.

(ii) Protection by Law:

India was probably the first country to enact a Wildlife Protection Act. The Wild birds and Animals Protection Act was passed in 1887 and repealed in 1912. For game protection in the states the Forest Act XVI was enacted in 1927. Then Indian Board of Wildlife was established in 1952 which is followed by setting up of Wildlife Boards in different states.

In 1972, new Wildlife Protection Act was passed. Under this Act, possession, trapping, shooting of wild animals alive or dead; serving their meat for eating, their transport and export and all controlled and watched by special staff (Chief Wildlife Warden and authorized officers).

This Act prohibits hunting of females and young ones under this Act, threatened species are absolutely protected and the rest and provided graded protection according to the condition of their population size. However, in India every year we observe a Wildlife Week from 1st October to 8th October.

(iii) Establishment of Sanctuaries and National Parks:

In India, nearly 200 sanctuaries and national parks have been established for wildlife management. These are meant for providing natural habitat to wild animals.

A sanctuary is a place or area with natural environment having optimum living conditions and protection for wild animals; in fact, in a sanctuary wild indigenous animals are kept for protection. Shooting and hunting is prohibited in a sanctuary.

A sanctuary is established by State Forest Department by Notification and it can be abolished by similar procedures. Contrary to a sanctuary, a national park is a permanent place or area established by Central Legislation for preserving flora, fauna, landscapes and historic objects of a particular area. However, shooting and hunting is prohibited in such areas also.

Essay # 4. Conservation Strategies:

For the judicious use of resources, the scientists from nearly 100 countries of the world have formulated some conservation strategies.

Few of the steps proposed to save the existing species of the wildlife are given below:

a. Every effort should be made to preserve the endangered species; these species should be given priority over a vulnerable one, a vulnerable species over a rare one and a rare species over other categories.

b. Proper management and planning should be made to preserve wildlife in their natural habitat (in situ) and in zoos and national parks (ex-situ).

c. A wide range of varieties of livestock, animals for aquaculture and their wild varieties should be preserved, and priority should be given to those that are most threatened and needed for national and international breeding programme.

d. Each country should locate the habitats of wild relatives of the economically valuable and useful animals and ensure their preservation in protected areas.

e. The feeding, breeding, nursery and resting areas of species should be safeguarded.

f. In case of migratory animals, a network of protected areas should be established to preserve their habitats. For those species which migrate from one national jurisdiction to another, bilateral or multilateral agreements should be made to meet out the required network.

g. Unique ecosystems should be protected as a matter of priority.

h. The national protection programmes should be coordinated with the international programmes like UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere Project 8 and national parks and protected areas of International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. This would safeguard the genetic diversity and their continuing evolution.

i. The productive capacities of species should be determined, so that, their utilisation should not exceed those capacities.

j. Proper legislative and administrative measures should be taken to regulate the International trade of wild animals.

Essay # 5. Protected Areas in India:

As referred to, Indian subcontinent is very rich in possessing natural beauty.

Its bio-geographical range consists of the coldest Ladakh and Spiti, the hot deserts of Thar, the temperate forest in Himalayas to the lush green tropical rain forests of the low lands; Indian subcontinent also possesses large fresh water bodies such as Wular and the Manasbal lakes in Kashmir, the Chilka in Orissa and Kolleru lake in Andhra Pradesh and the ruggest and rich coastline and coral reefs of the Deccan.

Government of India passed the Wildlife Protection Act in 1972, under which national parks and sanctuaries could be created.

However, out of 434 national parks and sanctuaries in India, 17 have been selected as “Project Tiger” areas.

During the past twenty years UNESCO has evolved Biosphere Reserves under its Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme. Accordingly, India has located 13 areas as Biosphere Reserves; from these Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, including parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu was declared in 1986 and the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in 1988.

Probably two more Biosphere Reserves, one at Uttaranchal (including the Valley of Flowers in North-Western Himalayas) and another at Nokrek (North-Eastern Himalaya), has also been included in the list of Biosphere Reserve.

In a Biosphere Reserve, the land is designated into different zones; these are the core zone (where no human activity is allowed), the buffer zone (where limited human activity is allowed) and the manipulation zone (where a large number of human activities may go on). In Biosphere Reserves, wild population as well as traditional life styles is protected.